Personalised Learning

Personalised Learning
Click to visit the Personalised page

The aim of personalised learning is to create an individual unique learning experience for each student. Understanding the differences in your learners is the first step in personalising the learning experience. This forms the basis of creating an appropriately challenging experience that supports learning and development.

Personalised learning relates to a diverse range of approaches to teaching that centre on the learner and their individual learning needs. Focusing on methods for personalisation we explore how you can differentiate your resources and materials to encourage motivation and engagement amongst your learners and their peers.

What about Adaptive Learning?

Adaptive Learning is a technology-led approach that aims to personalise learning based on a variety of factors informed by the student. Educators have experimented with adaptive learning systems to assist with personalisation. In one such system Yarandi, et al (2012) modeled a learner profile - based on ability, learning preferences and aspirations - which informed logical sequenced programmes tailored to the individual student’s needs.

PERSONALISED LEARNING
Choose your own path
Promote motivation and engagement
Develop ownership of learning
Help to self-regulate
Develop metacognitive skills

Learning Types and the Conversational Framework

Offering personalised design within your curriculum can be challenging. Laurillard (2012) defined a series of knowledge types within her Conversational Framework Model. These knowledge types can be used to align your design with a specific purpose.

Acquisition

Listening to a lecture, reading a book or journal or watching video content.

Investigation

A student led activity to seek new information. The student carries out research of their own.

Discussion

Engaging in a dialogue with educators and peers. A student mentally processes new ideas based on the perspective and experiences of others.

Practice

The student acts on knowledge and feedback to generate an action. The student has a task to complete and engages with course content to find a solution.

Collaboration

Different to discussion in that students create a shared output. The emphasis here is on the negotiation of an agreed output.

Production

The creation and articulation of original thought. This is primarily geared toward the producing content for evaluation and assessment.

Consider the ABC (Arena, Blended, Connected) approach to curriculum design devised by UCL Digital Education (Young & Perovic, 2016). This approach engages educators in storyboarding a sequence of learning activities drawing on inspiration from these knowledge types and aligning them to the specific learning outcomes of your course. This process streamlines development against sound educational principles, providing a framework for well-designed courses aligned with the learner needs and learning outcomes.

Acquisition

Learning through acquisition is what learners are doing when they are listening to a lecture or podcast, reading from books or websites, and watching demos or videos.

 

Investigation

Learning through investigation guides the learner to explore, compare and critique the texts, documents and resources that reflect the concepts and ideas being taught.
 
 
 

Collaboration

Learning through collaboration embraces mainly discussion, practice, and production. Building on investigations and acquisition it is about taking part in the process of knowledge building itself.

Practice

Learning through practice enables the learner to adapt their actions to the task goal, and use the feedback to improve their next action. Feedback may come from self-reflection, from peers, from the teacher, or from the activity itself, if it shows them how to improve the result of their action in relation to the goal.

Discussion

Learning through discussion requires the learner to articulate their ideas and questions,
and to challenge and respond to the ideas and questions from the teacher,
and/or from their peers.

Production

Learning through production is the way the teacher motivates the learner to consolidate what they have learned by articulating their current conceptual understanding and how they used it in practice.
 
 

References

Bryson, C., & Hand, L. (2007). The role of engagement in inspiring teaching and learning. Innovations in Educational and Teaching International, 349-362.

Butler, D., & Winnie, P. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: a theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 245-281.

Felder, R., & Silverman, L. (1988). Learning and teaching styles in engineering education. Engineering Education, 674-681.

Honey, P., & Mumford, A. (1982). The manual of learning styles. Maidenhead: Peter Honey.

Hover, K., & Steiner, C. (2009). Adaptive Learning Environments: a requirements analysis in business settings. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, 27-33.

Kirschner, P. A. (2017). Stop propagating the learning styles myth. Computers and Education, 166-171.

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential Learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Nichol, D., & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 199-218.

Rohrer, D., & Pashler, H. (2012). Learning Styles: Where's the Evidence? Medical Education, 34-35.

Tseng, J., Chu, H., Hwang, G., & Tsai, C. (2008). Development of an adaptive learning system with two sources of personalisation information. Computers and Education, 776-786.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Williams, P., & Hellman, C. ( 2004). Differences in self-regulation for on-line learning between first and second generation college students. Research in Higher Education, 71-82.

Yarandi, M., Tawil, A., & Jahankani, H. (2012). Ontologies for personalised adaptive learning. Advances in Computing & Technology.